Research Support Respecting the Gold Bar Standard

In what do you have confidence?

In what does your organisation place its trust? Why?

Research Driven
Gold Bar Research Reports

Research Summary

The Full Range leadership Model (™Bass and Avolio) (FRLM) is the theoretical base for the individual MLQ360, MLQSelf, MLQTeam, and ODQ Assessment Reports.

The FRLM describes a full range of influencing styles from ‘non-leadership’ to powerful transformational leadership behaviours. The model captures eight different kinds of behavioural styles and one attribute factor that have different strength and directional impacts for leader-manager follower and associate outcomes.

Transformational leadership behaviours have been shown to powerfully augment most traditional management or transactional leadership behaviours by upwards of 40% in impact strength on the same measurable outcomes. Transformational behaviours change the perception of followers and associates to produce stronger extra effort, satisfaction, efficiency and productivity outcomes.

An optimal frequency balance between both transformational and transactional influencing styles over time is necessary for high impact outcomes for followers and associates in organisational contexts. It is not a case of ‘management’ or ‘leadership’.

Consequently, core to the FRLM are two inter-related leadership-management competencies:

  1. Whether the leader has the full repertoire of leadership styles in place - both transformational and transactional behaviours – knows what they are, and can decide to exercise any of them.

    That is - does the leader-manager recognise what is important in getting the best results from others, and can the leader-manager behave in these styles when he or she chooses to do so?

  2. Whether the leader optimally balances the expression of this repertoire over time with followers and associates when these are viewed against the research-driven benchmarks.

    That is - the frequency over time with which the leader-manager exhibits each of the full range of leadership styles to others.

According to the FRLM both competencies are important to achieve outcomes such as satisfaction, extra effort and efficiency with followers and associates along with many other objective outcomes sought by individuals, groups and organisations.

The MLQ5x assessment scale:

  • Is valid across cultures, different organisational types, and at different leadership levels
  • Is statistically correlated to a range of enhanced independent measures of desired outcomes for individuals and organisations
  • Has demonstrated predictive validity
  • Has acceptable pre-post- test reliability
  • Has associated with it significant multi-rater norms - International, Australian, Industry Sectors, and local organisations.
  • Has been used to attest to the trainability of the Full Range Leadership behaviours in gold bar standard longitudinal studies.

References Respecting the Gold Bar Standard

Technical Research Manual:

Technical Research Manual:The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 3rd edition Manual (Avolio, B.J and Bass, B.M., 2004) which summarizes many independent research studies and findings may be obtained from MLQ Pty Ltd: and from the publisher Mind Garden Inc. (USA):

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